DISCOVERY OF THE SKIN

We are working on the restoration of the microenvironment of the cells in order to preserve and recover the cellular integrity.

DISCOVERY OF THE SKIN

With a surface area of nearly 2sqm, this living envelope is a flexible, resistant, stretchable and waterproof fabric that is constantly renewed and protects us from UV rays, microorganisms but also shocks. Its two million pores contribute to the regulation of body temperature by the retention or elimination of water.
It is therefore essential to take care of and preserve it.

GENERAL STRUCTURE

The cutaneous structure is composed of three successive layers: the epidermis, the dermis and the hypodermis. There are also hair follicles (hairs) corresponding to an invagination of the epidermis, which continue at the level of the deep dermis and are accompanied by the sebaceous glands that secrete the sebum. The latter is essential for the lubrication of the skin and its protection against many bacteria. The sweat glands also represent invaginations in the epidermis and dermis. The skin thus has its flexibility and its resistance to the tissue layers which constitute it.

EPIDERMIS

With an average thickness of 100 μm the epidermis is stratified and is renewed every four weeks approximately by the elimination of superficial dead cells. The epidermis consists mainly of living cells, the keratinocytes, which have the particularity of progressively transforming themselves during a phenomenon called keratinization phenomenon necessary to the formation of different layers of cells each having their specificity: on the deep face of the epidermis, at the level of the dermo-epidermal junction, the cells of the basal layer (basal stratum or germinatum) continually regenerate the keratinized epithelial tissue. Within a few weeks these young cells migrate to the surface, flatten and keratinize. The last stage is the drying of the superficial layer (stratum corneum) which removes the dead cells by desquamation. In the basal layer, there are also other types of cells including the melanocytes responsible for pigmentation of the skin.

THE DERMIS

With a thickness of 500 μm to 1 mm, the dermis is a connective tissue ensuring both the cohesion and nutrition functions of the skin. It adheres strongly to the epidermis thanks to the dermo-epidermal junction consisting of the basal membrane and several layers of substances such as glycoproteins, collagen type IV, fibronectin. This junction has a characteristic corrugated structure of young skin.

The dermis contains fibrillar protein tissue and is provided with an extensive network of nerve endings as well as rich lymphatic and blood vascularization. It is in this zone that the macromolecular fibrous network of the skin extends, a tissue made up of collagens, elastins, glycoproteins.

HYPODERMIS

Subcutaneous area, the hypodermis is a loose connective tissue that has the same structure as the dermis but is also loaded into adipocytes (fat cells) in clumps (which store triglycerides).

It is a protective mattress, thermal insulation and energy reservoir (lipids, fatty acids).

CUTANEOUS AGING

The skin ages when its cells no longer regenerate to the rhythm of their destruction. By the age of thirty, the microenvironment of the cells deteriorates, leading to a decrease in their water potential. The cells become "atrophied" and can no longer communicate with each other, thereby greatly reducing their activity. The tissues lose their elasticity and their ability to regulate gaseous diffusion.


Cutaneous aging is manifested first of all by a reduction in the thickness of the epidermis linked to a decrease in the proliferation capacity of the keratinocytes. Then, the stratum corneum thickens in some areas related to the alteration of the desquamation process.

There is also a decrease in the melliocyte proliferation capacity leading to their decrease and therefore a poor protection against actinic radiation. Moreover, their capacity for proliferation decreases, they group together to form senile lentigos (age spots) or disappear completely giving rise to achromic spots. There is also a decrease in sebaceous secretion, resulting in a dry appearance of the skin. In addition, the dermo-epidermal junction flattens and the skin distends. The proteoglycan gel changes, leading to a lower water fixing capacity. The fibers of elastins become scarce and those of collagen fragment ...

That is why we have worked on restoring the microenvironment of cells in order to preserve and regain cellular integrity.